Preliminary Analysis on Data

So far I have analyzed two out of my three sources of data, and the underlying theme that I have found is how refugee children conceptualize their identity through their physical environment. I knew that geography and the idea that borders are identity would come up, but I was surprised to see how early these children were comprehending that notion.

In my first data source (letters written by children in a Lebanese refugee camp, “Through Children’s Eyes…” article), these children who ranged from ages 12-15 were alluding to complex themes of prejudice and conflict. They viewed themselves as the human manifestation of the garbage that polluted their camp, and recognized their lost childhood by watching the Lebanese children play while they (the refugee children) worked. The kids also displayed an understanding of the larger conflict environment that caused their displacement and understand that they received prejudice remarks because of them being Palestinian. I found these themes by performing a rhetorical analysis on the word choice and tone creation the children chose to use in their letters.

In my second data source (“Missing Out,” Report by the UNHCR), I read through the report to see if it would address the themes found in the letters. I found that the report was solely focused on the creation of education programs for refugee youth, but did not include any attempts to improve parental involvement with creating education programs or for addressing the mental health needs of the children. There was a disconnect between the two sources, as the report had an idealist approach, whereas, the letters conveyed deep needs of cultural acceptance.

What really struck me in these two sources, is that the biggest theme was the connection of work and identity. These kids have been repeatedly told that their fate is that of a garbage man and then they see the amount of pollution in the camps which only reinforces that belief. The kids define their futures by the work they must do to assist their families. The UNHCR report addresses that education will assist in decreasing child labor, but it does not include how to better the economic reality of these families along with implementing youth education programs.

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Literature Bibliography

In my upcoming literature review, I will be drawing from the below list of sources. These sources include studies of education’s effect on terrorism, past de-radicalization efforts, and educational programs in refugee camps. The intent of the literature review is to develop an understanding of education’s relationship with terror/terrorism while understanding the impact education has had in refugee camps.

My current bibliography:

Abuza, Zachary. “Education and Radicalization: Jemaah Islamiyah Recruitment in Southeast Asia.” The Making of a Terrorist: Recruitment, Training, and Root Causes. Ed. James J. F. Forest. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. 2006. 66-83.

Brown, Graham K. “The Influence of Education on Violent Conflict and Peace: INequality, Opportunity, and the Management of Diversity.” Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education 41, no. 2 (2011). 191-204. doi: http://search.proquest.com/docview/881462038?accountid=8285

Fincham, Kathleen. “Learning the Nation in Exile: Constructing Youth Identities, Belonging and ‘Citizenship’ in Palestinian Refugee Camps in South Lebanon.” Comparative Education 48, no.1 (2012). 119-133. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03050068.2011.637767

Krueger, Alan B. and Jitka Maleckova. “Education, Poverty, and Terrorism: Is There a Causal Connection?” Journal of Economic Perspectives 17, no. 4 (2003). 119-144. URL: http://www.rochester.edu/College/PSC/clarke/214/Krueger03.pdf

Maleckova, Jitka and Dragana Stanisic. “Does Higher Education Decrease Support for Terrorism?” Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy 19, no. 3 (2013). 343-358. doi: 10.1515/peps-2013-0027.

Mugisha, Catherine Howgego. “Gender Imbalance in Secondary Schools.” Forced Migration Review 22 (2005). 32-33. Doi: http://proxyau.wrlc.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/58847209?accountid=8285

Netto, Gina. “Strangers in the City: Addressing Challenges to the Protection, Housing and Settlement of Refugees.” European Journal of Housing Policy; Abingdon 11, no. 3 (2011). 285-303. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616718.2011.599132

Pels, Trees and Doret J. de Ruyter. “The Influence of Education and Socialization on Radicalization: An Exploration of Theoretical Presumptions and Empirical Research.” Child & Youth Care Forum 41, no. 3 (2012). 311-325. doi: http://search.proquest.com/docview/1013463132?accountid=8285

Ritchter, Erica. “Intercultural Education: A Contribution to Peace in the Developing Global Society?”  Critical Theories, Radical Pedagogies, and Global Conflicts. Ed. Gustavo E. Fischman, Peter McLaren, Heinz Sunker, and Colin Lankshear. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2005. 307-316.

Smith, Alan. “The Influence of Education on Conflict and Peacebuilding.” Background Paper Prepared for the Education for ALl Global Monitoring Report 2011. The Hidden Crisis: Armed Conflict and Education. Global Monitoring Report, UNESCO Paris. (2010) doi: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001913/191338e.pdf

Thomas, Paul. “Youth, Terrorism, and Education: Britain’s Prevent Programme.” International Journal of Lifelong Education. 35, no. 2 (2016). 171-187. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02601370.2016.1164469

“Through Children’s Eyes: Children’s Rights in Shatila Camp.” Journal of Palestine Studies. 29, no. 1 (1999). 50-57. Doi: http://proxyau.wrlc.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/59839415?accountid=8285

Watenpaugh, Keith David and Adrienne L. Fricke and James R. King. “We Will Stop Here and Go No Further: Syrian University Students and Scholars in Turkey.” Working Paper. Institute of International Education. University of California- Davis. 2014. http://www.ciaonet.org/record/32532?search=1

Research Problem

My research will examine how refugee camps in Lebanon are using education to help prevent radicalization of migrant youth from the refugee crisis affecting the region. The project will use past and recent literature on Lebanese refugee camps, as well as, comparisons to refugee settlement in Turkey to analyze and understand the results. This research will seek to attest the influence and value of education in the mitigation of conflict. The research will also attempt to manifest the valuable insight education can bring to cultural competency when creating peace-building policy.

Some questions that will help guide the research are: How has the increase in severity of the Syrian Civil War affected the quality of education implemented in these camps? What specific cultural traits either ease or hinder the ability to provide education in these camps? What implications will these results have on the policy actions being taken by the international community?

The socio-cultural elements that are affected by the migrant crisis are the political, social, cultural, and security elements. The political components refer to the political instability causing the crisis and the policy actions being taken by Lebanon and Turkey towards migrants. The social sector include the socialization of youth by the educational institutions in the camps, as well as, the societal make up of the home community. The cultural portions that are being impacted are language, heritage, gender roles, and values of education. Security elements include the openness of borders and the possibility of radicalization and terrorism.

Referenced Sources for Crisis, Context, and Lens:

Abuza, Zachary. “Education and Radicalization: Jemaah Islamiyah Recruitment in Southeast Asia.” The Making of a Terrorist: Recruitment, Training, and Root Causes. Ed. James J. F. Forest. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. 2006. 66-83.

Brown, Graham K. “The Influence of Education on Violent Conflict and Peace: INequality, Opportunity, and the Management of Diversity.” Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education 41, no. 2 (2011). 191-204. doi: http://search.proquest.com/docview/881462038?accountid=8285

Fincham, Kathleen. “Learning the Nation in Exile: Constructing Youth Identities, Belonging and ‘Citizenship’ in Palestinian Refugee Camps in South Lebanon.” Comparative Education 48, no.1 (2012). 119-133. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03050068.2011.637767

Krueger, Alan B. and Jitka Maleckova. “Education, Poverty, and Terrorism: Is There a Causal Connection?” Journal of Economic Perspectives 17, no. 4 (2003). 119-144. URL: http://www.rochester.edu/College/PSC/clarke/214/Krueger03.pdf

Maleckova, Jitka and Dragana Stanisic. “Does Higher Education Decrease Support for Terrorism?” Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy 19, no. 3 (2013). 343-358. doi: 10.1515/peps-2013-0027.

Netto, Gina. “Strangers in the City: Addressing Challenges to the Protection, Housing and Settlement of Refugees.” European Journal of Housing Policy; Abingdon 11, no. 3 (2011). 285-303. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616718.2011.599132

Pels, Trees and Doret J. de Ruyter. “The Influence of Education and Socialization on Radicalization: An Exploration of Theoretical Presumptions and Empirical Research.” Child & Youth Care Forum 41, no. 3 (2012). 311-325. doi: http://search.proquest.com/docview/1013463132?accountid=8285

Ritchter, Erica. “Intercultural Education: A Contribution to Peace in the Developing Global Society?”  Critical Theories, Radical Pedagogies, and Global Conflicts. Ed. Gustavo E. Fischman, Peter McLaren, Heinz Sunker, and Colin Lankshear. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2005. 307-316.

Smith, Alan. “The Influence of Education on Conflict and Peacebuilding.” Background Paper Prepared for the Education for ALl Global Monitoring Report 2011. The Hidden Crisis: Armed Conflict and Education. Global Monitoring Report, UNESCO Paris. (2010) doi: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001913/191338e.pdf

Thomas, Paul. “Youth, Terrorism, and Education: Britain’s Prevent Programme.” International Journal of Lifelong Education. 35, no. 2 (2016). 171-187. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02601370.2016.1164469

Watenpaugh, Keith David and Adrienne L. Fricke and James R. King. “We Will Stop Here and Go No Further: Syrian University Students and Scholars in Turkey.” Working Paper. Institute of International Education. University of California- Davis. 2014. http://www.ciaonet.org/record/32532?search=1